Clinical References

Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

Ross R and Glomset JA. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (First of two parts). N Engl J Med. 1976; 295: 369-377.

Ross R and Glomset JA. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (Second of two parts). N Engl J Med. 1976; 295: 420-425.

Ross R. Atherosclerosis-An inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340: 115-126.

Finn AV et al. Concept of vulnerable/unstable plaque. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010; 30: 1282-1292.

Multimarker Approach

Penn MS and Klemes AB. Multimarker approach for identifying and documenting mitigation of cardiovascular risk. Future Cardiol. 2013; 9: 497-506

Ikonomidis I et al. Multimarker approach in cardiovascular risk prediction. Dis Markers. 2009; 26: 273-285.

Libby P et al. Inflammation in atherosclerosis: From pathophysiology to practice. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 2129-2138.

Inflammation Testing


Karakas M et al. Myeloperoxidase is associated with incident coronary heart disease independently of traditional risk factors: Results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg study. J Intern Med. 2012; 271:43-50. Abstract

Ndrepepa G et al. Impact of therapy with statins, beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on plasma myeloperoxidase in patients with coronary artery disease. Clin Res Cardiol. 2011; 100: 327-333. Abstract

Tang WHW et al. Plasma myeloperoxidase predicts incident cardiovascular risks in stable patients undergoing medical management for coronary artery disease. Clin Chem. 2011; 57: 33-39. Abstract

Oemrawsingh RM et al. Multimarker risk model containing troponin-T, interleukin 10, myeloperoxidase and placental growth factor predicts long-term cardiovascular risk after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Heart. 2011. Epub ahead of print. Abstract

Roman et al. Prognostic value of myeloperoxidase in coronary artery disease: Comparison of unstable and stable angina patients. Coron Artery Dis. 2010; 21: 129-136. Abstract

Heslop et al. Myeloperoxidase and C-reactive protein have combined utility for long-term prediction of cardiovascular mortality after coronary angiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 55: 1102-1109. Abstract

Wong et al. Myeloperoxidase, subclinical atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease events. J Am Coll Cardiol Img. 2009; 2: 1093-1099. Abstract

Tang et al. Usefulness of myeloperoxidase levels in healthy elderly subjects to predict risk of developing heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 2009; 103: 1269-1274.  Abstract

Ndrepepa et al. Myeloperoxidase level in patients with stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndromes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2008; 38: 90-96.  Abstract

Morrow et al. Concurrent evaluation of novel cardiac biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome: Myeloperoxidase and soluble CD40 ligand and the risk of recurrent ischaemic events in TACTICS-TIMI 18. Eur Heart J. 2008; 29: 1096-1102. Abstract

Brevetti et al. Myeloperoxidase, but not C-reactive protein, predicts cardiovascular risk in peripheral arterial disease. Eur Hear J. 2008; 29: 224-230. Abstract

Mocatta et al. Plasma concentrations of myeloperoxidase predict mortality after myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 49: 1993-2000.  Abstract

Tang WHW et al. Prognostic value and echocardiographic determinants of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 49: 2364-2370.

Cavusoglu E et al. Usefulness of baseline plasma myeloperoxidase levels as an independent predictor of myocardial infarction at two years in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2007; 99: 1364-1368.

Meuwese et al. Serum myeloperoxidase levels are associated with the future risk of coronary artery disease in apparently healthy individuals: the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 50: 159-165. Abstract

Exner M et al. Myeloperoxidase predicts progression of carotid stenosis in states of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 47: 2212-2218.

Vita et al. Serum myeloperoxidase levels independently predict endothelial dysfunction in humans. Circulation. 2004; 110: 1134-1139. Abstract

Baldus S. et al. Myeloperoxidase serum levels predict risk in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Circulation. 2003; 108: 1440-1445.

Brennan M-L et al. Prognostic value of myeloperoxidase in patients with chest pain. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349:1595-1604.

Zhang R et al. Association between myeloperoxidase levels and risk of coronary artery disease. JAMA. 2001;286:2136-2142.


Reddy KJ et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass is significantly reduced in dyslipidemic patients treated with lifestyle modification and combination lipid-modifying drug therapy. Prev Cardiol. 2010; 13: 130-134.

Daniels LB et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 is an independent predictor of incident coronary heart disease in an apparently healthy older population: The Rancho Bernardo Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51: 913-919.

Gorelick PB. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and risk of stroke. Am J Cardiol. 2008; 101 (suppl): 34F-40F.

Wassertheil-Smoller S et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, hormone use, and the risk of ischemic stroke in postmenopausal women. Hypertension. 2008; 51: 1115-1122.

Kolodgie FD et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 protein expression in the natural progression of human coronary atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006; 26: 2523- 2529.

Ballantyne CM et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and risk for incident ischemic stroke in middle-aged men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165: 2479-2484.

Ballantyne CM et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and risk for incident coronary heart disease in middle-aged men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation. 2004; 109: 837-842.

Ferguson JF et al. Translational studies of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) in inflammation and atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardio. 2012; 59: 764-772.

Gonçalves I et al. Evidence supporting a key role of Lp-PLA2-generated lysophosphatidylcholine in human atherosclerotic plaque inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012; 32: 1505-1512.

Serruys PW et al. Effects of the direct lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor darapladib on human coronary atherosclerotic plaque. Circulation. 2008; 118: 1172-1182.

Lösche W et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and plasma lipids in patients with destructive periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 2005; 32: 640-644.

Davidson MH et al. Efficacy and tolerability of adding prescription omega-3 fatty acids 4 g/d to simvastatin 40 mg/d in hypertriglyceridemic patients: An 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther. 2007; 39: 1354-1367.

Urinary Microalbumin

Sarafidis PA et al. Insulin resistance, microalbuminuria, and chronic kidney disease. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2008; 10: 249-251.

Lambers Heerspink HJ et al. Update on microalbuminuria as a biomarker in renal and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2006; 15: 631-636.

Arnlöv J et al. Low-grade albuminuria and incidence of cardiovascular disease events in nonhypertensive and nondiabetic individuals: The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2005; 112: 969-975.

Kistorp C et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein, and urinary albumin levels as predictors of mortality and cardiovascular events in older adults. JAMA. 2005; 293: 1609-1616.

Klausen K et al. Very low levels of microalbuminuria are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and death independently of renal function, hypertension, and diabetes. Circulation. 2004; 110: 32-35.

Hillege HL et al. Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in general population. Circulation. 2002; 106: 1777-1782.

Gerstein HC et al. Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. JAMA. 2001; 286: 421-426.

American Diabetes Association: Clinical recommendations 2001: diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care. 2001; 24: S69 –S72.

High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein

Ridker PM et al. Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 2195-2207.

Ndrepepa G et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein in stable coronary heart disease. Am J Med. 2006; 119: 355.e1-355.e8.

Nissen SE et al. Statin therapy, LDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 29-38.

Ridker PM et al. C-reactive protein levels and outcomes after statin therapy. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 20-28.

Ridker PM. et al. Comparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 1557-1565.

Rost NS et al. Plasma concentration of C-reactive protein and risk of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack: The Framingham study. Stroke. 2001; 32: 2575-2579.

Ridker PM et al. Inflammation, aspirin, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy men. N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 973-979.

Review criteria for assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cardiac C-reactive protein (cCRP) assays. Sept. 22, 2005. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Oxidized LDL

Bays HE et al. Chitin-glucan fiber effects on oxidized low-density lipoprotein: A randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. epub ahead of print 5 September 2012.

Rao VS et al. Association of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers with metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians in India. Cardiol Res Pract. 2010 Dec 28;2011:295976.

Holvoet P et al. Association between circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. JAMA. 2008; 299: 2287-2293.

Meisinger C et al. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, a strong predictor for acute coronary heart disease events in apparently healthy, middle-aged men from the general population. Circulation. 2005; 112: 651-657.

Tsimikas S et al. Oxidized phospholipids, Lp(a) lipoprotein, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 46-57.

Nishi K et al. Oxidized LDL in carotid plaques and plasma associates with plaque instability. Aterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002; 22: 1649-1654.

Holvoet P et al. Circulating oxidized LDL is a useful marker for identifying patients with coronary artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001; 21: 844-848.

Ehara S et al. Elevated levels of oxidized low density lipoprotein show a positive relationship with the severity of acute coronary syndromes. Circulation. 2001; 103: 1955-1960.


Davies SS and Roberts LJ 2nd. F2-Isoprostanes as an indicator and risk factor for coronary heart disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011; 50: 559-566. Abstract

Shishehbor MH et al. Systemic elevations of free radical oxidation products of arachidonic acid are associated with angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006; 41: 1678-1683.

Schwedhelm E et al. Urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a as a risk marker in patients with coronary heart disease: A matched case-control study. Circulation. 2004; 109: 843-848.

Morrow JD et al. The F2-isoprostane, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha, a potent agonist of the vascular thromboxane/endoperoxide receptor, is a platelet thromboxane/endoperoxide receptor antagonist. Prostaglandins. 1992; 44: 155-163.

Morrow JD et al. A series of prostaglandin F2-like compounds are produced in vivo in humans by a non-cyclooxygenase, free radical- catalyzed mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990; 87: 9383- 9387.

Advanced Lipids

Standard Lipid Panel

Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). National Cholesterol Education Program. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. National Institutes of Health. September 2002. NIH Publication No. 02-5215.

Apolipoprotein B (ApoB)

Ingelsson E et al. Clinical utility of different lipid measures for prediction of coronary heart disease in men and women. JAMA. 2007; 298: 776-785.

Walldius G et al. High apolipoprotein B, low apolipoprotein A-1, and improvement in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction (AMORIS study): A prospective study. Lancet. 2001: 358: 2026-2033.

Yusuf S. et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART Study): Case-control study. Lancet. 2004; 364: 937-952.

Chapman MJ et al. Further resolution of the low density lipoprotein spectrum in normal human plasma: Physicochemical characteristics of discrete subspecies separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation. J Lipid Res. 1988; 29: 442-458.

Elovson J et al. Plasma very low density lipoproteins contain a single molecule of apolipoprotein B. J Lipid Res. 1988; 29: 1461-1473.

Apolipoprotein A (ApoA1)

Von Eckardstein A et al. High density lipoproteins and arteriosclerosis. Role of cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001; 21: 13-27.

Walldius G et al. High apolipoprotein B, low apolipoprotein A-1, and improvement in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction (AMORIS study): A prospective study. Lancet. 2001: 358: 2026-2033.

ApoB/ApoA1 Ratio

Walldius G et al. Stroke mortality and the ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio: Results of the AMORIS prospective study. J Intern Med. 2006; 259: 259-266.

Walldius G et al. High apolipoprotein B, low apolipoprotein A-1, and improvement in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction (AMORIS study): A prospective study. Lancet. 2001: 358: 2026-2033.

Small Dense LDL (sdLDL)

Rosensen RS et al. Relations of lipoprotein subclass levels and low-density lipoprotein size to progression of coronary artery disease in the Pravastatin Limitation of Atherosclerosis in the Coronary Arteries (PLAC-I) trial. Am J Cardiol. 2002; 90: 89-94.

Koba S et al. Significance of small dense low-density lipoproteins and other risk factors in patients with various types of coronary heart disease. Am Heart J. 2002; 144: 1026-1035.

St-Pierre AC et al. Comparison of various electrophoretic characteristics of LDL particles and their relationship to the risk of ischemic heart disease. Circulation. 2001; 104: 2295-2299.

Chapman MJ et al. Atherogenic, dense low-density lipoproteins. Pathophysiology and new therapeutic approaches. Eur Heart J. 1998; 19 Suppl A: A24-30.

Grundy SM. Hypertriglyceridemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 1998; 81: 18B-25B.

Austin MA et al. Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. A proposed genetic marker for coronary heart disease risk. Circulation. 1990; 82: 495-506.

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]

Kamstrup PR et al. Genetically elevated lipoprotein(a) and increased risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2009; 301: 2331-2339.

Kolodgie FD et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 protein expression in the natural progression of human coronary atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vase Biol. 2006; 26: 2523-2529.

Anuurad E et al. Lipoprotein(a): A unique risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Clin Lab Med. 2006; 26: 751-772.

Berglund L et al. Lipoprotein(a): An elusive cardiovascular risk factor. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004; 24: 2219-2226.

Boffa MB et al. Lipoprotein(a) as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis: Mechanistic insights from animal models. Clin Biochem. 2004; 37: 333-343.

Mackinnon LT et al. Effects of physical activity and diet on lipoprotein(a). Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997; 29: 1429-1436.

Bostom AG et al. Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) and coronary heart disease in men age 55 years and younger. A prospective study. JAMA. 1996; 276: 544-548.

Routi T et al. Correlation of toddlers’ serum lipoprotein(a) concentrations with parental values and grandparents’ coronary heart disease: The STRIP baby study. Acta Paediatr. 1996; 85: 407-412.

Jurgens G et al. Lipoprotein(a) serum concentration and apolipoprotein(a) phenotype correlate with severity and presence of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Stroke. 1995; 26: 1841-1848.


Johansson J et al. High density lipoproteins and coronary atherosclerosis. A strong inverse relation with the largest particles is confined to normotriglyceridemic patients. Arterioscler Thromb. 1991; 11: 174-182.

Yang Y eat al. Relationship between plasma lipid concentrations and HDL subclasses. Clin Chim Acta. 2005; 354: 49-58.

Tian L et al. Characteristics of high-density lipoprotein subclasses distribution for subjects with desirable total cholesterol levels. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2011; 10: 64-72.

Jia L et al. Alterations of high-density lipoprotein subclasses in hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia. Int J Cardiol. 2007; 120: 331-337.

Tilly-Kiesi M et al. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are associated with multiple abnormalities of lipoprotein subclasses in glucose-tolerant relatives of NIDDM patients. J Lipid Res. 1996; 37: 1569-1578.

Williams PT et al. Associations of age, adiposity, alcohol intake, menstrual status, and estrogen therapy with high-density lipoprotein subclasses. Arterioscler Thromb. 1993; 13: 1654-1661.

Williams PT et al. Effects of low-fat diet, calorie restriction, and running on lipoprotein subfraction concentrations in moderately overweight men. Metabolism. 1994; 43: 655-663

Other Advanced Cardiovascular and Metabolic Tests

Coenzyme Q10

Toyama K et al. Rosuvastatin combined with regular exercise preserves coenzyme Q10 levels associated with a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 2011; 217: 158-164.

Caso G et al. Effect of coenzyme Q10 on myopathic symptoms in patients treated with statins. Am J Cardiol. 2007; 99: 1409-1412.

Mabuchi H et al. Effects of CoQ10 supplementation on plasma lipoprotein lipid, CoQ10 and liver and muscle enzyme levels in hypercholesterolemic patients treated with atorvastatin: A randomized double-blind study. Atherosclerosis. 2007; 195: e182-e189.


Chen SJ et al. Relationships between inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7: e45693.

Kotooka N et al. Predictive value of high-molecular weight adiponectin in subjects with a higher risk of the development of metabolic syndrome: From a population based 5-year follow-up data. Int J Cardiol. 2012 Nov 26. pii: S0167-5273(12)01441-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.10.066. [Epub ahead of print].

Daimon M et al. Decreased serum levels of adiponectin are a risk factor for the progression to type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 2015-2020.

Kumada M et al. Association of hypoadiponectinemia with coronary artery disease in men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003; 23: 35-39.

Belalcazar LM et al. Adiponectin and mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: The Look AHEAD Study. J Lipid Res. 2012; 53: 2726-2733.


de Boer RA et al. Galectin-3 in cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2010; 7: 1-8.

Rubinstein N et al. The role of galectins in the initiation, amplification and resolution of the inflammatory response. Tissue Antigens. 2004; 64: 1-12.

Sharma UC et al. Galectin-3 marks activated macrophages in failure-prone hypertrophied hearts and contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Circulation. 2004; 110: 3121-3128.


Markuszewski L et al. Reduced blood platelet sensitivity to aspirin in coronary artery disease: Are dyslipidaemia and inflammatory states possible factors predisposing to sub-optimal platelet response to aspirin? Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006; 98: 503-509.

DiChiara J et al. The effect of aspirin dosing on platelet function in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: An analysis from the Aspirin-Induced Platelet Effect (ASPECT) study. Diabetes. 2007; 56: 3014-3019.

Gurbel PA et al. Evaluation of dose related effects of aspirin on platelet function: Results from the Aspirin-Induced Platelet Effect (ASPECT) study. Circulation. 2007; 115: 3156-3164.

Faraday N et al. Relation between atherosclerosis risk factors and aspirin resistance in primary prevention population. Am J Cardiol. 2006; 98: 774-779.

Friend M et al. Platelet responsiveness to aspirin in patients with hyperlipidaemia. BMJ. 2003; 326: 82-83.

Eikelboom JW et al. Aspirin-resistant thromboxane biosynthesis and the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. Circulation. 2002; 105:1650-1655.

Vitamin D, 25 OH

Rosen CJ. Vitamin D insufficiency. N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 248-254. Abstract

Wang TJ et al. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2008; 117: 503-511.

Holick MF and Chen TC. Vitamin D deficiency: A worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87 (suppl): 1080S-1086S.

Holick MF. Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets. J Clin Invest. 2006; 116: 2062-2072.

Holick MF. Vitamin D: Photobiology, metabolism, mechanism of action, and clinical applications. In: Favus MJ, ed. Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 2006: 129-137.

Dusso AS et al. Vitamin D. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005; 289: F8-F28.

Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > or = 60 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80: 752– 758.

Visser M et al. Low vitamin D and high parathyroid hormone levels as determinants of loss of muscle strength and muscle mass (sarcopenia): The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88: 5766-5772.

Bouillon R. Vitamin D: From photosynthesis, metabolism, and action to clinical applications. In: DeGroot LJ, Jameson JL, eds. Endocrinology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2001: 1009-1028.


Kroll MH et al. Using single-compartment ratio model to calculate half-life, NT-proBNP as an example. Clin Chim Acta. 2007; 380: 197-202.

Song BG et al. Correlation between levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and degrees of heart failure. Korean J Intern Med. 2005; 20: 26-32.

Bayes-Genis A et al. N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the emergency diagnosis and in-hospital monitoring of patients with dyspnoea and ventricular dysfunction. Eur J Heart Fail. 2004; 6: 301-308.

Bettencourt P. NT-proBNP and BNP: Biomarkers for heart failure management. Eur J Heart Fail. 2004; 6: 359-363.

Bettencourt P et al. N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide predicts outcome after hospital discharge in heart failure patients. Circulation. 2004; 110: 2168-2174.

Pemberton CJ et al. Deconvolution analysis of cardiac natriuretic peptides during acute volume overload. Hypertension. 2000; 36: 355-359.

Genetic Tests


Desta Z et al. Clinical significance of the cytochrome P450 2C19 genetic polymorphism. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002; 41: 913-958.

Shuldiner AR et al. Association of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype with the antiplatelet effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy. JAMA. 2009; 302: 849-857.

Mega JL et al. Cytochrome P-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 354-362.

5. Li Y et al. The gain-of-function variant allele CYP2C19*17: A double-edged sword between thrombosis and bleeding in clopidogrel-treated patients. J Thromb Haemost. 2012; 10: 199-206.

Sibbing D et al. Cytochrome 2C19*17 allelic variant, platelet aggregation, bleeding events, and stent thrombosis in clopidogrel-treated patients with coronary stent placement. Circulation. 2010; 121: 512-518.

Apolipoprotein E

Eichner JE et al. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and cardiovascular disease: A HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol. 2002; 155: 487-495.

Siest G et al. Apolipoprotein E: Laboratory determinations and clinical interest. The Handbook of Lipoprotein Testing. 2nd ed. AAAC Press; 2000. p. 401-440.

Schaefer EJ et al. Effect of gender and menopausal status on the association of apolipoprotein E phenotype with plasma lipoprotein levels. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1994; 14: 1105-1113.

Song Y, Stampfer MJ, and Liu S. Meta-analysis: Apolipoprotein E genotypes and risk for coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med. 2004; 141: 137-147.

Moreno J et al. The effect of dietary fat on LDL size is influenced by apolipoprotein E genotype in healthy subjects. J Nutr. 2004; 134: 2517-2522.

Lopez-Miranda J et al. Effect of apolipoprotein E phenotype on diet-induced lowering of plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Lipid Res. 1994; 35: 1965-1975.

Ordovas JM et al. Effect of apolipoprotein E and A-IV phenotypes on the low density lipoprotein response to HMG CoA reductase inhibitor therapy. Atherosclerosis. 1995; 113: 157-166.

Nestel P et al. A comparative study of the efficacy of simvastatin and gemfibrozil in combined hyperlipoproteinemia: Prediction of response by baseline lipids, apo E genotype, lipoprotein(a) and insulin. Atherosclerosis. 1997; 129: 231-239.


Botto LD and Yang Q. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants and congenital anomalies: A HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol. 2000; 151: 862-877.

Rozen R. Genetic predisposition to hyperhomocysteinemia: Deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Thromb Haemost. 1997; 78: 523-526.

Yang Q et al. Prevalence and effects of gene-gene and gene-nutrient interactions on serum folate and serum total homocysteine concentrations in the United States: Findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey DNA Bank. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88: 232-246.

van der Put NM et al. Decreased methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase activity due to the 677 C→T mutation in families with spina bifida offspring. J Mol Med. 1997; 74: 691-694.

de Bree A et al. Effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677CàT mutation on the relations among folate intake and plasma folate and homocysteine concentrations in a general population sample. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77: 687-693.

Friso S et al. A common mutation in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene affects genomic DNA methylation through an interaction with folate status. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2002; 99: 5606- 5611.

Other References

General Lipid References

Khera AV et al. Cholesterol efflux capacity, high-density lipoprotein function, and atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 127-135. Abstract

Brunzell JD et al. Lipoprotein management in patients with cardiometabolic risk: consensus statement from the American Diabetic Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31: 811-822.

Grundy SM et al. Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel II guidelines. Circulation. 2004; 110: 227-239.

Nauck M et al. Methods for measurement of LDL-cholesterol: A critical assessment of direct measurement by homogenous assays versus calculation. Clin Chem. 2002; 48: 236-254.

Bachorik PS, Ross JW, for the NCEP working group on lipoprotein measurement. National Cholesterol Education Program recommendations for measurement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: Executive summary. Clin Chem. 1995; 41: 1414-1420.

Friedelwald WT et al. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972; 18: 499-502.

Biomarkers and Risk Stratification

Schindhelm RK et al. Myeloperoxidase: A useful biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk stratification? Clin Chem. 2009; 55: 1462-1470.

Tsimikas S et al. C-reactive protein and other emerging blood biomarkers to optimize risk stratification of vulnerable patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 47: C19-31.

Johnson KM et al. Traditional clinical risk assessment tools do not accurately predict coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden: A CT angiography study. Am J Roentgenol. 2009; 192: 235-243.

Cook NR et al. The effect of including C-reactive protein in cardiovascular risk prediction models for women. Ann Intern med. 2006; 145: 21-29.

Ridker PM et al. C-reactive protein and parental history improve global cardiovascular risk prediction: The Reynolds Risk Score for men. Circulation. 2008; 118: 2243-2251.

Hatoum IJ et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity improves risk discrimination of incident coronary heart disease among women. Am Heart J. 2011; 161: 516-522

Biomarkers and Other Chronic Diseases

Epplein M et al. Association of plasma micronutrient levels and urinary isoprostane with risk of lung cancer: The multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 1962-1970.

Rossner P Jr et al. Relationship between urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine levels and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15: 639-644.

Guidelines for CVD and Diabetes

Mosca L et al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women-2011 update. Circulation. 2011; 123: 1243-1262. Abstract.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2011. Diabetes Care. 2011; 34 (Supplement 1): S11-S61. Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC Vital signs; September, 2013.  Accessed 31/10/13.

Go AS et al. on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2013. Circulation. 2013; 127.